Click here to download the example program.
It turned out that the color scheme used by ListView is eventually taken from the active theme. It is possible to change it programmatically but it is quite complicated to do so. Meanwhile, with themes, it is relatively easy. If you know the information source. The Android development guide is almost completely useless regarding themes, for example sample themes don't work. This blog entry from Brainflush is much more informative, at least its examples work. The source that helped me the most was the actual Android XML fileset that defines the themes. If you have access to the Android source tree, the Android system resources can be found under the platform\frameworks\base\core\res\res directory. The relevant files are styles.xml under the values subdirectory and the content of the drawable subdirectory.
If you check the styles.xml in the res/values directory in our example program, you will see that modifying the color scheme of the ListView is a quite complicated, multi-step process. First of all, in res/values/styles.xml, the ListView style is overridden with the android:listViewStyle property. The ListViewStyle (MyListView) in turn references a list selector (android:listSelector) that is stored in the res/drawable directory. That selector defines color schemes for all the possible state combination of the list row. To increase the fun, the resource compiler screwed up the image IDs in the R.java file if the weather icon image files were not at the beginning of the file name list, hence the bizarre names in the drawable subdirectory. Now what we need more is a transition that refers a 9-patch background image (block blue in our case) for the selected row and we are ready.
Don't say that it was not easy.
PS: I apologize for the hideous colors. :-)